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Nano Lithography

Nano Lithography

Nanolithography is the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. Nanolithography is used during the fabrication of leading-edge semiconductor integrated circuits or nanoelectromechanical systems .Nanolithography is a term used to describe a number of techniques for creating incredibly small structures.One common method of nanolithography, used particularly in the creation of microchips, is known as photolithography. This technique is a parallel method of nanolithography in which the entire surface is drawn on in a single moment. Photolithography is limited in the size it can reduce to, however, because if the wavelength of light used is made too small the lens simply absorbs the light in its entirety.A technology that allows for smaller sizes than photolithography is that of electron-beam lithography. Using an electron beam to draw a pattern nanometer by nanometer, incredibly small sizes (on the order of 20nm) may be achieved. Electron-beam lithography is much more expensive and time consuming than photolithography, however, making it a difficult sell for industry applications of nanolithograph.Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) is a scanning probe nanopatterning technique in which an AFM tip is used to deliver molecules to a surface via a solvent meniscus, which naturally forms in the ambient atmosphere. This direct-write technique offers high-resolution patterning capabilities for a number of molecular and biomolecular 'inks' on a variety of substrates, such as metals, semiconductors, and monolayer functionalized surfaces.Proof-of-concept experiments of bio-nanoarrays using DPN can be found in the recent literature to construct nanoarrays of proteins via indirect methods with 100 nm features, and to probe biological interactions within a nanostructure with a conventional AFM. In addition, several studies have been reported for the direct deposition of proteins, which has advantages over indirect methods including time required and ease of fabrication, most importantly, the ability to fabricate arrays with multiple protein features.The process allows scientists to create surfaces with varied chemical functionalities and promises to extend lithography to applications beyond traditional semiconductor
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