*DESCRETE FRACTAL ECG*

The new innovative ECG apparatus consist of:

1. Means of acquiring the plurality of lead values as a function of time for a set of ECG leads.

2.1. Means for defining a spatial curve from the lead values of at least 3 leads (Conventional)

2.2. Means for calculating the DFDI as a function of time for the spatial curve.

2.3. And means for monitoring the time rate of change of DFDI

The apparatus mentioned further comprises of calculating the lead values from Electrode e readings taken from electrodes attached to a patient.

The apparatus said above where in a -ve time rate of change of DFDI is indicative of NCA (Normal Cardiac Activities) and a +ve indicative of PCA (Pathological Cardiac Activities).

The apparatus said above further comprises of set of ECG leads from 3 to the power N (in general) but 3-120 (Practical) This means for calculating the full set of ECG leads from a subset of at least 3 ECG leads by using a spin universal transformation matrix.

Note:-

How the FD of the curve is defined

**D = log (L) to the base 10 / log (d) to the base 10**

**L-** Total length of the curve or sum of the distances between successive points (i.e. interval) d- Diameter estimated as the distance between the first point of the sequence and the point of the sequence that provides the farthest distance. Mathematically speaking d is expressed as d= max (distance (1, i). Considering the distance between each point of the sequence and the first point i is the one that maximizes the distance with respect to the first point.

**FD**

FD is measure of signal complexity that can characterize the different patho physiological conditions. It provides an alternative technique for accessing signal complexity in the time domain as opposed to the embedding method of accessing this complexity by reconstructing the attractor in the multidimensional phase space. This innovation permits a direct connection between complexity variations and ECG changes over time providing a fast computational tool to track non singularities in this signal. The FD also has the advantage of data volume reduction.

3. It is calculated over time in an over lapping sliding window, which greatly reduces the no. of data points stored. The exact amount of data depends upon the sliding window size, and on the over lap used for the analysis.

A DFDI curve in an n dimensional space has a topological dimension ‘n’ and a non integer or fractional dimension called fractal dimension. It also processes the characteristics that each portion of it can be considered as a reduced scale image of the whole for all the time scales (i.e. its topological properties are preserved under magnification or reduction). If the scaling factor is same for all the time scales then the curve is said to be self similar. Many algorithms developed to estimate the FD are based on the assumption of self similarity and independence of scaling. The patent is already being filed.

**ADVANTAGES:**

Cardiological diseases detection is easy especially Heart Attacks {myocardial infarction} prediction. Prognosis of cardio vascular diseases can be traced effectively. The procedure is cheap and easy as the ongoing ECG techniques. ECG DATA can be stored in a desktop/laptop and documented and being reviewed upon patients further visits.